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Tag ‘audiovisual translation’

What’s in the cards for AVT – prognoses on the future of dubbing

Thursday, September 15th, 2022

By Gabriela Flis and Tomas Senda, Applied Linguistics, Institute of Applied Linguistics, University of Warsaw

Not that long ago, many papers concerning audiovisual translation started with similar sentiments, stating how it is a new and uncharted territory. While this might have been true quarter of a century ago, the AVT landscape has changed drastically, especially in the last decade or so. And with this rapid change academics, so used to neat divisions and classifications, may once again find themselves entering unknown waters. However, before going into what the future holds, one must understand the foundation on which our prognoses were built.

The history of audiovisual translation is, of course, closely intertwined with the history of cinematography itself. Although many people believe Lumières’ 1895 film Workers Leaving the Lumière Factory to be the first motion picture ever shot, the truth is it came to be seven years after Louis Le Prince shot Roundhay Garden Scene – a two second film that pictures his family walking in a garden, believed to be the oldest surviving film ever made (Guinness World Records 2022, 2021). Although both pictures were but seconds long, the rapid development of the technology during the end of the XIX century soon enabled artists to shot longer movies that contained plot. As those movies were silent, plot elements and dialogues were conveyed using intertitles – simple text boards inserted in between shots on a film roll (Ivarsson, 2004). Of course, during the silent films era, the issue of translation had a rather simple solution – it sufficed to cut out the original boards and replace them with intertitles in the target language. The AVT landscape became more complex at the end of 1920s, when first sound films began to enter cinemas and inserting intertitles ceased to be a viable translation method. Of course since sound films saw the beginning of synchronizing recorded music and speech, the idea of what we now know as dubbing quickly appeared. Although many considered it to be too complex and pricy, dubbed productions were shown in cinemas as soon as 1930s (O’Brien, 2019). Many also experimented with various methods of either displaying the text with a separate projector or later adding text to the film roll itself, which finally resulted in the creation of what we now know as subtitles. The history of voice-over is harder to trace, as it is almost exclusively treated as a mode of audiovisual translation by post-communist countries, Poland included. In Poland it came to existence in 1960s, when the only state-approved dubbing studio found it increasingly hard to meet tight dubbing deadlines and therefore turned to voice-over as an easier-to-produce alternative (Plewa, 2015). As it was also significantly cheaper, it became the default AVT mode for TV productions during 1980s, when Poland entered an economic crisis (Plewa, 2015).

Photo by Jeremy Yap on Unsplash

Different modes of audiovisual translation became popular in different countries and their development was influenced by both political and economic reasons. Based on their preferred type of AVT, countries were then classified into dubbing, subtitling and voice-over countries (Gottlieb, 1998). Dubbing countries are usually wealthy nations with big potential audiences. Perhaps the best known example are FIGS – France, Italy, Germany and Spain (Gottlieb, 1998). It is worth mentioning that dubbing countries can have a history of totalitarian regime and censorship, since dubbing, as the original voice track is completely replaced, is most prone to control and propaganda (Danan, 2002). Economic aspects may also shed a light on why voice-over, although the original is still audible, became popular in less affluent countries of the Eastern Bloc, as it was much cheaper to produce than dubbing. However, financial reasons are not to be used as a rule of thumb, as some of the widely recognized subtitling countries may be found in Scandinavia, which contains arguably wealthy states.

Although scholars became used to Gottlieb’s (1998) classification, it may soon become obsolete, if it hasn’t already, as the growing popularity of VOD (video on demand) services has changed the market forever. Although Gottlieb’s categorization was based on preference, it was truly more about what was available to the viewers. Before streaming platforms such as Netflix, Amazon Prime, HBO Go and the likes of it entered the film and series market, viewers’ choices were limited in two main ways. Setting the issue of censorship aside, audiences could only watch what was previously selected by channel officials and had no say in choosing the mode of audiovisual translation. Although VOD services lured their clients with promises of their extensive catalogues, they usually also offer a wide range of AVT modes accessibility services, from subtitles for the deaf and hard of hearing, through dubbing, to audiodescription and voice-over, depending on the country. One can also easily change the language, meaning viewers can now chose not only the content itself, but also their (truly) preferred mode of audiovisual translation and the language they want to consume the film in. A recent study shows that this abundance of choice is starting to change viewers’ habits, with younger people being four times more likely to choose subtitles, even though they have fewer hearing issues than their older counterparts (Youngs, 2021).

However, it is worth noting that the ever-growing number of productions being made seemingly all the time can also negatively impact viewers, as well as the AVT market itself. Even though there has never been so much job opportunities, with deadlines being short and rates low, skilled translators and subtitlers are fleeing the industry (Bryant, 2021). This can, in turn, result in the quality of AVT services being impacted in a negative way. The situation got so dire that it became noticed by mainstream media (see Bisset, 2022; Motamayor, 2022).

Another industry practice that may completely change the landscape is the use of artificial intelligence to create dubbing. Since the dawn of dubbing, one of the biggest challenges when it came to translating a movie, was not only to convey the original meaning (provided one was not trying to censor or obscure the original) but also to synchronize the lip movements of characters with the translated utterance. In recent years, new technology of deep fakes and neural networks allowed AI experts to manipulate already existing videos. Aside from funny videos of presidents, heads of state and other respected officials stating things well below their station, it also resulted in companies using this technology to produce “perfectly” synchronized dubbing. In 2021, Flawless AI published a short fragment from Forrest Gump dubbed into Spanish and Japanese, where Tom Hanks’s lip movements have been carefully manipulated to match the audible translation, giving the impression that the actor is at least trilingual.

Although compared to literary studies or even SLA, audiovisual translation remains a fairly young research field, the rapid technological development over the last one hundred years has brought many changes. As of 2022, thanks to the VOD platforms taking over the market, viewers are being offered more choice when it comes not only to the content itself, but also their preferred method of audiovisual translation, resulting in once clear boundaries between dubbing, subtitling and voice-over countries becoming more blurred. Unfortunately, the abundance of film and TV series, combined with short deadlines and low wages, may impact the quality of AVT services in a negative way. What is more, as the artificial intelligence and video synthesis are on the rise, the issue of synchronization may soon become a thing of the past, with dubbing translators being able to concentrate less on lip sync and more on the content, making their work much easier, but arguably also less creative and challenging, taking the craftsmanship away from the job description.


Bisset, J. (2022, February 11). Inside the dying art of subtitling. CNET.

Bryant, M. (2021, October 14). Where have all the translators gone? The Guardian.

Danan, M. (2002). Dubbing as an Expression of Nationalism. Meta, 36(4), 606–614.

Gottlieb, H. (1998). Subtitling. In M. Baker (Ed.), Routledge encyclopedia of translation studies (First edition). Routledge.

Guinness world records 2022. (2021). Guinness World Records Limited.

Ivarsson, J. (2004). A Short Technical History of Subtitles in Europe. Transedit.

Motamayor, R. (2022, May 31). Every Language Everywhere All at Once. Vulture.

O’Brien, C. (2019). Dubbing in the early 1930s: An improbable policy. In C. O’Brien, The Translation of Films, 1900-1950 (pp. 177–190). British Academy.

Plewa, E. (2015). Układy translacji audiowizualnych. Wydawnictwo Naukowe Instytutu Komunikacji Specjalistycznej i Interkulturowej Uniwersytet Warszawski. Youngs, I. (2021, November 15). Young viewers prefer TV subtitles, research suggests. BBC.

Translation and accessibility: a pairing for inclusion

Thursday, September 23rd, 2021

Written by Silvia Toribio Camuñas and Antonio Hermán Carvajal (current students, Master’s Degree in Professional Translation, University of Granada, Spain)

Accessibility implies that a product or service relating to any aspect of human life can be used by everyone, regardless of their needs. From the field of Translation and Interpreting, a theoretical and applied line of research has been developed on the analysis, description and practice of accessibility, which contains a wide variety of modalities of intersemiotic translation, both inter and intralinguistic. This line of research has a great social impact, as it aims to guarantee access to knowledge and culture, universal rights recognised by the United Nations General Assembly in the Convention on the Rights of Persons with Disabilities of 2006. However, accessibility not only helps attain fundamental rights for people with disabilities. For instance, nowadays it is increasingly common for people without any kind of hearing impairment to choose the option of subtitling for the deaf and hard-of-hearing (SDH) offered by streaming platforms when in contexts or places where it is practically impossible to enjoy the sound of any audiovisual product. In the administrative and legal fields and in the museum context, to name but a few, the benefit provided by easy-to-read (E2R) texts, whose content would otherwise be inaccessible to the lay public, is unquestionable. These examples show how accessibility greatly improves the lives of the entire population, and not just minority groups.

Accessibility has been an ongoing line of study for several researchers related to the Master’s Degree in Professional Translation at the University of Granada, many of them members of the TRACCE research group (Translation and Accessibility, HUM770) or frequent collaborators, as well as some members of the LexiCon research group (Contrastive Lexicography: Applications To Translation, HUM122). In their pioneering research works, they have focused on the access to knowledge for people with sensory disabilities, studying audio-description for the blind and visually impaired, SDH and sign language interpreting. Especially the first two modalities mentioned allow users other than those of the primary target groups to enjoy audiovisual products more. For instance, and in addition to the examples already provided, SDH can be very useful for foreigners learning a new language or for children learning to read. More recently, their line of research has also addressed E2R, whose primary users include people with cognitive diversity and reading comprehension difficulties, the elderly, immigrants, children and adolescents.

The extensive experience and knowledge of accessibility of all these researchers plays an important role in the syllabi of courses within the speciality of Audiovisual Translation and Accessibility of the Master’s degree, such as Translation and Accessibility or Subtitling. However, the transversal nature of this line of research, which is linked to Corpus Linguistics, Terminology and, in general, to the field of Translation Technologies, gives it a certain prominence in other core and specific courses outside the speciality. For instance, in courses such as Practice in Scientific-Technical Translation, students are trained to translate specialized texts for groups with special needs by means of the production of E2R texts. This situation allows students to acquire basic knowledge of the different types of accessible translation and to recognise its relevance, transcendence and social impact throughout the Master’s degree. The presence of pioneering researchers in the field of accessibility is complemented by the collaboration of companies and associations working in this field, such as Kaleidoscope Access, which host students during their internships and facilitate their participation in professional accessibility projects.

An example of the latest initiatives carried out in the museological context was the audio-descriptive visit for visually impaired people to the Archaeological Museum of Granada, organised by the Spanish National Organisation for the Blind (ONCE) and the TRACCE research group, with the collaboration of Kaleidoscope Access.

In a society in which we must aspire to leave no one behind, the translation-accessibility binomial takes on special relevance to achieve this goal. Students of the Master’s Degree in Professional Translation are trained for this purpose, both because of the niche market it represents for graduates and because of its usefulness to society.

Students collaborate to create accessible theatre

Monday, July 12th, 2021

By Sabien Hanoulle, Master in het Vertalen, Universiteit Antwerpen, Faculteit Letteren

Since the early ’90s the Department of Applied Linguistics/Translators & Interpreters of the University of Antwerp (called HIVT at that time) has been specializing in audiovisual translation. About 25 years later, OPEN, an expertise centre for accessible media and culture was founded. OPEN aims to raise the visibility of accessibility in all its facets, to contribute to the realisation of an inclusive society, to be a point of contact between all stakeholders, focussing on innovation, professionalisation and knowledge exchange in this domain.
Besides organising activities like workshops and conferences, we conduct research projects involving also our students.

One of the ongoing projects, started last year in collaboration with the NTGhent theatre company, a software developer & surtitling company and three of our master students. The performances of COMPASSIE, directed by Milo Rau and performed on 4 and 5 March 2020 in Ghent, became,  accessible for people with vision loss and for people who are D/deaf or hard of hearing, thanks to the translation into Flemisch sign language (VGT), the provision of surtitles and audio description

The three master students created the audio description and the subtitles for the deaf and the hard of hearing (SDH) that were uploaded on a “theatre tablet” together with Flemish sign language and synchronized with the surtitles on the scene. The students also investigated the impact of this technology on the creation process, the final quality and the user experience.

As far as the methodology is concerned, they started with a profound analysis of the context (the play and its director), the source text (and all its semiotic meanings) and the audio description, that needed to be pre-recorded which is very unusual for theatre AD. Amongst the challenges they faced, we can mention the selection of the information, the subjectivity, the synchronization of the different channels (AD, SDH, VGT and surtitles on scene) and the fact that theatre typically is live and by consequence, no two performances are the same.
The conclusions of this pilot project will be taken into account for the future “theatre tablet projects” we are planning.

This kind of collaborative projects, where students touch upon the aim of translation in the very broad sense and see the social impact of what they are learning, is highly stimulating and of utmost importance for our students.

Learning more than expected: subtitling for an international film festival

Tuesday, March 9th, 2021

By Anna Kompasová and Róbert Špánik, final-year MA students at the Department of Translation Studies, Constantine the Philosopher University in Nitra, Slovakia

The Department of Translation Studies of Constantine the Philosopher University in Nitra is one of the top Slovak academic institutions in the field of translation studies. It is proud to be the only Slovak university in the EMT Network, has a long tradition in research and practice-oriented training, and has hosted numerous scientific, educational and cultural events and initiatives for researchers, practitioners and students. Furthermore, ours was the first department in Slovakia to provide specialised training in audiovisual translation, dubbing translation, subtitling, audio-description and subtitling for the deaf and hard of hearing.

Audiovisual translation seminars are among the most popular at our department because of their unique character, and the atmosphere in them is always one of cooperation and positivity. Creating a dubbing script or subtitles for our favourite TV series and films is both a dream and a challenge for every student of translation studies. For us, working on a good translation, editing dialogues and coming up with creative solutions gets the adrenaline flowing, recharging us with positive energy from a job well done. Moreover, having completed two semesters full of fun and hard work gives us a huge advantage in practice – no matter how scary the future might seem to a student approaching the end of their studies.

What really helps is the practical training experience, which is a vital part of the master’s programme in Nitra. Being provided with opportunities to meet professionals, discuss our work with experienced translators and work in their teams can be daunting, but it’s also a great way to build confidence and to meet new people and see new places. In this aspect, it’s little surprise that cooperation with film festivals has been one of the most popular options for students at our department.

In our case, we were hoping to experience the same, but then Covid-19 paid a visit and radically changed plans for everybody – and the field of culture and the arts was no exception. But as in many sectors, the culture sector managed to react to the new situation promptly and so, fortunately, the popular international documentary film festival One World (in Slovak: Jeden svet) decided to invite its viewers into the online space and provide a rich week-long programme. Thanks to this, we as final-year students had the unique chance to collaborate and enjoy the atmosphere and adventure related to this type of event. The One World International Documentary Film Festival 2020 took place from 5-11 November. The competing films opened up debates on important social and human-rights issues that reflected the theme: CHOICE. The One World Festival cooperates with experts from the People in Peril Association, as well as filmmakers, partner organisations, secondary schools and academic institutions. Moreover, it is accompanied by exhibitions, workshops and discussions. The 21st year of the festival was exceptional in several respects. Due to the coronavirus pandemic, the whole festival took place online, which meant adjustments in the way of working and communication, but also provided opportunity for more viewers to enjoy this year’s selection of films.

In order for the audience to view the films, preparations started much earlier. During the summer several students were already working on translations of announcements, film synopses and promo copy with the intention of attracting as many viewers as possible. And during September and October, 14 students from Nitra enthusiastically embarked on the subtitling of 19 documentary films. The One World Festival definitely opened the door to diverse themes. During the subtitling process, in addition to struggling with wordplay and terminology, we often laughed, cried, became angry or scared, as the films touched upon themes such as human life and dignity, the human soul, freedom, discrimination, emotional and psychological health, misuse of power and destruction of the environment.

Frankly speaking, we were taking on a difficult task. During the process of translation, we often had to cope with unexpected situations that required a great deal of energy. We didn’t quite anticipate the amount of time necessary for the research of realia and terminology, but we were aware of the responsibility we had towards the viewers.  On the other hand, we learned so much more than just subtitling. Mantras, zoological terminology, psychology, Bhutanese musical instruments, political expressions and medical jargon: this and more helped us become not only more knowledgeable but also open-minded and curious. In many cases the subtitling process required consultation with experts in various scientific fields, endless internet research, and was accompanied by the struggle of making long Slovak words fit the screen, adequate transfer of emotional expression, and even the translation and re-rhyming of songs.

Moreover, while subtitling we had to follow all the requirements and parameters, sometimes fought manifold technical issues, and thus put into practice knowledge already acquired in specialist seminars. The translation process, editing, proofreading and subsequent implementation of changes were no longer just a simulation, but a real project for which we bore responsibility. It was an experience that we will remember for a long time and which only convinced us that the work of a subtitler is a challenging, creative but never boring profession. The topics we had to deal with often gave us pause for thought and made us come up with solutions for various demanding situations. Consultations with a nuclear power plant expert, zoo personnel or ichthyologists represent just a small part. We are very proud that the fruits of our work contributed to Slovak science as well. Thanks to the film Sea of Shadows and consultations with experts from the Slovak Academy of Sciences, we managed to introduce a new term into Slovak zoological terminology, specifically the official scientific term for the fish totoaba macdonaldi.

The 21st year of the festival was not only extraordinary because it took place online. In addition to classic subtitles, three documentary films were also adapted for hearing and visually impaired viewers. Although it might sound not much, it is important to say that this was the first time a Slovak film festival had attempted an inclusive approach in providing access via more than just interlingual subtitles. Indeed, these special streamings were prepared by One World Festival in cooperation with the Department of Translation Studies of CPU Nitra. This was a great challenge for students. Although this was our first practical attempt at working with this form outside of the school environment – with a main focus on SDH, the quality met a positive response. While creating subtitles for a hearing-impaired audience we began to realise many things that had not even occurred to us before. It taught us to be more receptive and empathetic and showed us how important it is to pay attention to doing the job well and conscientiously. This challenging task gave us a lot not only as translators but as people too. The pace of the work was fast, but quality was the highest priority. The subtitles created were under the professional supervision of Dr Emília Perez and the creative and technical team of the festival organisers. Cooperation with the One World Festival provided us with the opportunity to apply our knowledge in practice and brought us new experiences. In this way, we helped a festival which promotes social and human-rights issues and raises many intriguing and relevant questions. Last but not least, recognition by the organising committee of the festival who enthusiastically promoted the work of translators and subtitlers, and the good feeling that we as translators derived from being able to find our names at the end of the films and on the festival’s website, were also a great reward. We have become more confident that we not only have a command of subtitling at a theoretical level but also at a practical one. Furthermore, many of us have found out that subtitling is our calling, and we would like to work in this field after graduation as well.

Gained in translation: why mist can sometimes turn into rubbish

Tuesday, September 22nd, 2020

By Pr Oliver Czulo, EMT representative M.A. Translatologie, University of Leipzig

Video excerpts: Star Trek: The Next Generation, Season 4, Episode 5 (English/German), 1990, (c) Paramount/CBS

Dr Beverly Crusher is not to be envied: First, one by one, the crew members of the starship Enterprise D are disappearing, and then, it’s not even possible to call out to other ships for help. When Dr Crusher orders the ‘viewscreen’ to be switched on, all she can see is a dimly lit … misty something. She calls out: ‘Computer, what is that mist I am seeing?’

On the surface, a very simple task for a translator: no complex linguistic structures, no ambiguities, no unanswered questions. But, wait! Apparently, it all went wrong, at least according to numerous comments from the German fan community. [Tip: The web pages are in German; the comments mentioned can be found by searching for ‘Mist’.] So, what went wrong? Well, here is the German dubbed version:

‘Computer, was ist das für ein Mist, den ich da sehe!’

She says something like mist here, doesn’t she? She absolutely does – but Mist in German means ‘dung’, or, in this context, rather ‘rubbish, garbage’. Mist should be Nebel in German, shouldn’t it? It’s clear to everyone: The translator must have made a grave mistake!


The following thoughts have arisen out of various discussions with colleagues and students. The purpose in laying them out is not to sort out what really happened, but to explore the kind of reasoning that could have led to the ultimate decision for the German dubbed version.

Formal factors

One thing not to lose out of sight when translating for dubbing is the need for at least a certain degree of lip synchronicity. When a pairing such as mist/Mist presents itself, involving two (almost) identically pronounced words formed with pretty much the same lip movement, then this is a strong formal argument for using the paired word, providing that the choice will be semantically plausible in the given context.

In the short YouTube video linked above, lip movement may not seem important, given the camera perspective, but in a dubbing studio with a large screen and high resolution, the situation may look quite different.

Emotional factors

The emotional state of the character is also relevant in the situation. Dr Crusher is clearly frustrated. All the people she works with on a daily basis have disappeared, and the universe is about to collapse. She cannot explain what is happening and the viewscreen is not providing any useful information as to the whereabouts of the ship.

In such a scene, mist can be an inspiration for the German Mist, which is not only lip-synchronous, but which better transports the emotional state of Dr Crusher than would the use of the default translation, Nebel. And, as the ‘mist’ has no further relevance for the development of the story, the parameter space shifts towards other translation options.

Relationship between text and image

Not only does the ‘mist’ play no role in the rest of the story, but it is not even easily discernible as such. Whatever the viewscreen is showing, it would be hard to identify it if it were not clearly named: You could just as well ask what that strange light is that is coming from that one corner.

The English variant shifts the focus (away from the light) and pre-empts an interpretation (the pale light is a nebula), whereas in the German variant, no perspective is construed. But what becomes more apparent in German is that whatever the viewscreen is showing, it is not what Dr Crusher expected – after all, when the viewscreen allows a glimpse outside the Enterprise, both she and the audience are usually looking at either a field of stars or the crew of some other starship.

Translation or dubbing decision?

Last but not least, we have to ask whether the shift from mist to Mist happened during translation or maybe somewhere else: in the dubbing studio. Did the translation initially contain the variant Nebel instead of Mist? Was there a problem with the timing, was a shorter variant (one vs. two syllables) necessary? Or, did the translated sentence just not fit the character, who had been dubbed by the same person for years, during which time the concept for the character had evolved? Was the English original an inspiration and mist sounded so good that, after a brief discussion, Mist was chosen instead of Nebel? We may never find out, but the possibility exists.

All but normative

The image many people have of translation is that it simply involves the advanced use of dictionaries. Of course, dictionaries are indeed an important tool for translators, but unfortunately, this narrow view results in a very normative stance on translation, as witnessed by the never-ending topos of the ‘correct’ translation. While there may in fact be misleading, incorrect and simply wrong translations out there, the spectrum extending in the other direction is very broad. After all, what is a correct translation? One that is based on the first option given in some dictionary, or one that is (at the least) just as entertaining, informative, etc. as the original? If it had not been for the existence of the original, would anyone have noticed a ‘problem’ with the Mist variant in German?

‘Lost in translation’ is a common phrase, but ‘gained in translation’ should become just as common. Translation enriches our culture, technology and economy in many ways, by bringing in new ideas, by enabling collaboration, etc. And, from a less lofty perspective, translators are sometimes able to reveal previously unrecognized nuances. The example discussed here should provide for an excellent case-in-point.

My thanks go out to Jonatan Jalle Steller for creating the video excerpts and to Cynthia Dyre for revising the English version.

This blog entry is largely based on a German entry which first appeared in the LingDrafts blog:


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